Category: Oral Diseases

Treatment of Leukoplakia

Treatment of Leukoplakia Excision modalities (surgery, laser ablation, cryosurgery) Option to observe lesions diagnosed as benign hyperkeratosis or mild dysplasia Possibly photodynamic therapy Topical cytotoxic drugs (bleomycin) remain experimental. Recurrences common following apparent complete excision Prognosis Guarded Observation with repeat biopsies to be performed Prevention Elimination of tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption Recurrences may […]

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Differential Diagnosis of Leukoplakia

Differential Diagnosis of Leukoplakia Other white lesions Frictional keratosis Burn (thermal/chemical) Hyperplastic candidiasis Lichen planus Genetic alterations (genodermatoses) White sponge nevus Hereditary benign intra- Dyskeratosis epithelial dyskeratosis Diagnosis • Performance of a biopsy is mandatory after elimination of any suspected causative factors • Multiple biopsies of large lesions are needed to be performed due to […]

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Clinical features of Leukoplakia

Clinical features of Leukoplakia An idiopathic white (sometimes white-and-red) patch Most common on lip, gingiva, buccal mucosa Increased risk of dysplasia or carcinoma when occurring on tongue, floor of mouth, vermilion portion of lip Clinical subsets include homogeneous, verrucous, speckled, and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (proliferative form may be multiple and persistent) Cases may advance or […]

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Eitiology / Causes of Leukoplakia

Eitiology / Causes of Leukoplakia Essentially unknown, although many cases related to use of tobacco or areca nut in its various formulations Other possible factors include nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin A) and infection (Candida albicans, human papillomavirus).

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Treatment of Leukoedema

Treatment of Leukoedema Treatment • None necessary; no relation to dysplasia/carcinoma • Reassurance Prognosis • Excellent  

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Differential Diagnosis of Leukoedema

Differential Diagnosis of Leukoedema •Cheek chewing • Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis • White sponge nevus • Lichen planus • Candidiasis  

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Clinical features of Leukoedema

Clinical features of Leukoedema • Symmetric, asymptomatic • Buccal mucosa involved by gray-white, diffuse, milky surface with an opalescent quality • Wrinkled surface features at rest • Dissipation of changes with stretching of mucosa   Diagnosis • Clinical recognition is sufficient. • Biopsy findings will show marked intracellular edema of spinous layer. • Individual cells […]

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Eitiology / Causes of Leukoedema

Eitiology / Causes of Leukoedema • Unknown • Benign; common in general population, with racial clustering in Blacks

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Treatment of Hairy Tongue

Treatment of Hairy Tongue  Physical débridement (brushing with a soft-bristled toothbrush, 5 to 15 strokes, once or twice daily)  Topical podophyllin (5% in benzoin) followed by débridement  Elimination of cause, if identified Prognosis  Excellent  

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Clinical features of Hairy Tongue

Clinical features of Hairy Tongue  Elongated, hyperkeratotic filiform papillae on tongue dorsum producing a “furred” to “hairy” texture  Color varies from tan to brownish yellow to black depending upon diet, drugs, chromogenic organisms  Symptoms usually minimal; may produce gagging or tickling sensation on palate Diagnosis  Clinical features  Culture or cytologic studies not helpful

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